Bonaparte Napoleon

Bonaparte Napoleon:

Bonaparte Napoleon was a valiant conqueror, supreme ruler, sagacious diplomat, and unsurpassed hero. His administrative ideals and creative work are noteworthy, particularly in French history. History can never forget his achievements. He took the reins of France in very odd circumstances. There was political anarchy and economic bankruptcy in the country. Revolution had envisaged the possible dangers of the combined opposition of European countries. In such odd circumstances, if Napoleon had not displayed his valor on the battlefield and striven for creative achievements in internal matters, nobody might have seen the vestiges of revolution. But after some time, Bonaparte Napoleon himself throttled the spirit of revolution. Still, the credit for diffusing the ideals of revolution in Europe is ascribed to him. Undoubtedly, he was the most attractive and controversial person of his time. He greatly influenced the epoch in which he lived. It is why his epoch is known as the “Napoleonic Era”.

Bonaparte Napoleon was born on August 15, 1769, in Ajaccio city on Corsica island in the home of Carlo Bonaparte and Letizia Ramolino. His father was an advocate but his family was not well-off economically. His mother was a beautiful and industrious woman. Napoleon had four brothers and three sisters. Alienated from his brothers and sisters, Napoleon led a solitary life. In his childhood, he was not attractive. He was slender, weak, and effeminate. In solitude, he would draw lines on the ground or build castles and destroy them. In order to get military training, Napoleon was sent to France by his father. He was imparted education in military schools at Briyen and Paris. In his school days, he studied Geography, History, and works of contemporary intellectuals like Voltaire, Montesquieu, and Rousseau. He was influenced by Julius Caesar and Alexander. In his student days, Napoleon was afflicted by an inferiority complex. Under the burden of his meager sources, he lived a sad and dejected life. The letters he wrote to his mother were mirrors of his pessimism. The inferiority complex tormented his mind because he did not hail from the nobility and he reacted to that situation by establishing his relations with the noble families throughout his life and trying to prove himself to be a noble.

Napoleon’s Ascendency:

At the time when the Revolution started in France, Napoleon was in Corsica but was soon called to suppress the revolt in Leon. In 1793, the British had captured Tullein port but Napoleon drove them away from there in three months……. Read Here.

Consulate Rule and Constitution of 1799:

During the ten years of the Revolution, the condition of France deteriorated because of mismanagement and anarchy. The Consulate was beset with many dire problems that needed immediate attention…… Read Here.

Reforms of Bonaparte Napoleon:

After getting rid of wars, Bonaparte Napoleon paid attention to internal reforms. During ten years of revolution, the condition of France had deteriorated due to mismanagement and anarchy. It was not possible to pay attention to effective management under the pressure of political uncertainty……. Read Here.

Napoleon Concord With Pope:

The Church and priests were severely condemned during the Revolution. National Assembly seized the Church property. Revolutionaries tried to convert the Cathedrals into logical homes. Great pains were taken to weaken the power of the Church. All these steps…… Read Here.

Napoleonic Code:

Napoleon’s most significant work of permanent nature was the compilation of civil laws. Prior to the Revolution, France had many laws in force which had mutual contradictions and discrepancies. The National Council assigned the task of drafting a new constitution for France…… Read Here.

Napoleon’s Accession to the Throne:

After assuming the office of the First Consul, Napoleon started dreaming of establishing his own sovereignty. In 1802, The Senate elected him consul for life. Napoleon’s assumption of the office of lifelong consul was a rehearsal for ascending the throne as an Emperor. In 1804, the senate declared him a hereditary Emperor of France.

Bonaparte Napoleon as an Emperor (1804-1814):

On December 2, 1804, Bonaparte Napoleon was duly coronated Emperor of France in the Cathedral of Notre Dame amidst grand ceremonies. The Public accepted Napoleon’s absolute reign because it was fed up with the anarchy and chaos that followed the Revolution. During that tumult, entire businesses and industries were ruined. In these circumstances, the public was fully confident that only Napoleon could protect them from internal and external dangers. The French public craved for peace. Hence Napoleon made efforts to establish equality and liberty in the French Society.

Bonaparte Napoleon Efforts for Supremacy in Europe:

In March 1802 the Amiyons Pact was settled between England and France but both parties were suspicious of each other and engaged in making preparation for the ensuing struggle. The English, put before Bonaparte Napoleon their demands which required him to vacate the possession of Holland and Switzerland, to continue the British possession over Malta for 10 years, and to pay compensation to the King of Sardinia in lieu of Piedmont. But Bonaparte Napoleon rejected all those demands and on May 18, 1803, England declared war against France. In fact, it was a colonial and imperialistic war between the two countries. On the one hand, England wanted to spread its business in entire Europe and Asia by completely defeating France, on the other hand, France wanted to subjugate the entire Europe at the cost of disrupting England.

In order to defeat England and to undo her trade, Bonaparte Napoleon took possession of Hanover and laid an embargo on all German ports to check exports to England. In the meanwhile Pitt of England, built a third alliance in 1804. The third alliance comprised England, Austria, Russia, and Sweden. Prussia remained neutral. Bavaria and Wortemberg joined hands with Napoleon. Instead of attacking England, Napoleon had a good reason for attacking Austria. Bonaparte Napoleon attacked Austria and took possession of Ulm on October 20, 1805. On October 21, 1805, the famous Battle of Trafalgar was fought between France and England. French and Spanish fleets were destroyed completely in that war. England proved the supremacy of her naval force but the British Naval Commander Nelson was killed. The defeat at Trafalgar was so distressing for France that Napoleon canceled forever his plan to combat England in a naval battle. In field battles, Bonaparte Napoleon revenged England on his defeat in a naval battle.

On December 2, 1805, Bonaparte Napoleon inflicted a crushing defeat on the combined forces of Prussia and Austria in the battle of Austerlitz. Austria was compelled to settle a pact at Pressberg (December 26, 1805). Austria had to bear utmost humiliation due to that pact. Austria had to concede some regions of Venetia and Dalmatia to France and some regions of Tiarole to Bavaria and Wurtemberg to Beiden. The Pressberg Pact had far-reaching effects. Napoleon now became a “kingmaker”. The significant result of that pact was obvious in the unification of Germany. He eliminated several small states of Germany and built a “Rhine State Federation” which consisted of Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and fourteen other states of Germany. The new German Confederate forsook its loyalty to Germany and accepted Napoleon as its savior and guardian. After that, the Holy Roman Empire was overthrown. The Holy Roman Empire had existed for about a millennium and dominated many minor states of Germany. After the formation of “The Rhine State Confederate,” Napoleon compelled the Austrian Emperor Francis to relinquish the office of the “Holy Roman Emperor”. In this way, the Holy Roman Empire came to an end formally.

Bonaparte Napoleon’s intervention in Germany fomented the fury of Prussia which was the most prominent state of Germany and wanted to expand its territory by taking advantage of the utter chaos prevailing in Germany. On October 14, 1806, Napoleon inflicted a terrible defeat on Prussia in the battles of Zena and Auverstate. In accordance with the postwar accord, a new state “Warsaw Dutchy” was established on a part of Holland, and Napoleon’s friend Saxony was made its president. The Prussian army was reduced. French troops lodged with Prussia until the compensation amount had been paid off. That war depleted Prussia of its famous military prestige.

After defeating Prussia, Bonaparte Napoleon decided to launch an attack on Russia. In the battle of Elo, thousands of soldiers were killed during a horrible fight. But the battle proved indecisive. After that, Russia was defeated in the Battle of Freedland (June 14, 1807). Russia was constrained to sign the Treaty of Tilsit. The Treaty of Tilsit (July 1807) marked the Zenith of emperor Napoleon’s ascendency. On the strength of his marvelous diplomacy, Napoleon won Russia’s friendship. To realize the terms and conditions of the Treaty of Tilsit, the ruler of Russia approved all the changes made by Napoleon in Holland, Germany, and Italy and put the seal of his consent on the disruption of Prussia. Russia promised not to have trade relations with England. The Treaty of Tilsit heralded a glorious period of relations between France and Russia. Through that treaty, the largest country in Europe became Napoleon’s friend. Napoleon enjoyed the ascendency of his power and his empire stood at the zenith of its glory.

Continental System:

After signing the Treaty of Tilsit, the only remaining enemy of France was England, and supremacy over Europe could not be established without defeating England. It is a well-known fact that England is surrounded by sea and possesses an invincible fleet. Therefore, it was not… Read Here.

Causes of the Failure of the Continental System:

It is true that Europe was under the influence of Napoleon when he implemented his continental system. But he ignored the fact that England had built her own colonies and it was trifling to ban her import and export in Europe. Britain would acquire raw materials….. Read Here.

Napoleonic War:

Portugal was not prepared to implement Bonaparte Napoleon’s continental system in its state because it had deep political and commercial relations with England. Consequently, like Denmark, Sweden, Holland and the Papal states Portugal too became a victim of Napoleon’s fury. In company with Spain, Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807 and occupied it. The invasion of Portugal did not have any military importance but it was a prelude to the ensuing attack on Spain…….. Read Here.

Significance of Napoleonic Era:

The importance of the Napoleonic Era (1799-1815) does not lie in Napoleon’s military achievements. The very importance of the Napoleonic Era lies in that he fulfilled the historic aims of the Revolution. His foreign campaigns uprooted the old system which prevailed in many European countries. Consequently, Europe was rejuvenated, and political power was shared in a novel way. The old map of Europe was drawn…… Read Here.