Consulate Rule and Constitution of 1799

Consulate Rule and Constitution of 1799:

Consulate Rule (1799-1804): During the ten years of the Revolution, the condition of France deteriorated because of mismanagement and anarchy. The Consulate was beset with many dire problems that needed immediate attention. Therefore, the Consulate, first of all, fixed five objectives of its policy,

(1) To establish proper order in various sections of the government.

(2) To restore peace in the country.

(3) To settle respectable pacts with European countries.

(4) To prepare new codes of law.

(5) To draft a constitution.

Napoleon made unremitting efforts to achieve these goals.

Constitution of 1799: In order to strengthen his position, Napoleon drafted a constitution which was the fourth constitution of the Revolution period. Under the provisions of that constitution, the Senate invested three elected consuls with executive powers for a period of 10 years. The three consuls were: the first consul- Napoleon Bonaparte; the second consul- Cambessary and the third consul-Leibroon. All the powers of the state were handed over to the first consul. The republican form of government was a mere formality, in reality, all the powers remained with Napoleon. Napoleon divested the local institutions of their powers and held the reins of administration in his hand.

After consolidating his position, Napoleon paid attention to the second alliance which consisted of England, Austria, and Russia, and was organized against France. In order to eliminate that alliance, he went through Italy and launched an attack on Austria. Austria sustained a defeat and settled a pact with Napoleon in February 1801 at Lunevillei. Naples too surrendered afterwards.

In the meanwhile, Russia became angry with Austria and withdrew from that coalition. Now there was only England to accompany Austria. England alone waged a war against France. Ultimately on March 27, 1802, England and France made peace and America and England gave recognition, for the first time, to the French government organized under Napoleon. England returned most of the conquered colonies to France. It assured to vacate Malta. In this way, Europe got redemption from wars after ten years. But the peace proved short-lived, and Europe lived in peace for 14 months.

Important Links:

Intellectual Enlightenment
Political Causes of the French Revolution
Economic Causes of the French Revolution
Beginning of the French Revolution
Functions of the Constituent Assembly
Unsuccessful Attempt of the Royal Family to Flee the Country
Phases of the French Revolution
Role of Philosophers in the French Revolution
Nature of the French Revolution
Correlation Between the Objectives and Achievements of the French Revolution
Do you agree that the French Revolution achieved far less than what it intended to achieve?
Importance of the French Revolution
French Revolution of 1848
The Foreign Policy of Louis Philippe
Causes of the Revolution of February 1848
Napoleon Ascendency
French Revolution– Wikipedia